The U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Jacksonville traces its history to 1918 when it was in the Post Office building on west Monroe Street in downtown Jacksonville. Its first official designation was in 1958 when it became the Jacksonville Recruiting Main Station (RMS). During this time, Jacksonville RMS recruited throughout the entire state of Florida and a portion of south Georgia. In 1974 its recruiting area changed and Jacksonville became known as the Jacksonville District Recruiting Command (DRC).
The Miami DRC started operating and Jacksonville's area decreased to near Tallahassee on its western border and its southern border ran from south of Tampa eastward across the state to Melbourne. The Jacksonville DRC consisted of six recruiting areas: Jacksonville, Waycross, Orlando, Live Oak, Tampa and St. Petersburg. Each recruiting area was commanded by a Master Sergeant. The Jacksonville DRC continued to recruit in a substantial part of south Georgia. In 1973, the headquarters moved from the Post Office Building to Carmichael Avenue in the Koger Center suburban office park, now the Midtown Centre.
In 1982, the DRC became the U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion Jacksonville. The battalion consisted of five companies: Jacksonville, Tampa, Valdosta, Orlando and St. Petersburg, each commanded by an Army captain. In 1986, the Tampa Company became part of the Miami Battalion. In 1990, Jacksonville Battalion's headquarters moved to 1851 Executive Center Drive, where it is today.
In 1991, USAREC formed the Tampa Battalion and Jacksonville Battalion was reorganized into four companies: Jacksonville, Valdosta, Savannah, and Daytona. The addition of the Gainesville Company increased the battalion footprint to 82 counties in Florida and south Georgia. On March 12, 2008, USAREC underwent a transformation changing the boundaries of Jacksonville Battalion, adding Warner Robins Company, with six stations, and Charleston Company, with six stations, in South Carolina. The area spanned from Beaufort, Dorchester, and Hampton to Charleston. As a result, the battalion relinquished its coverage of the Daytona area to Tampa Battalion.
On September 19, 2012, USAREC changed to the team concept of Small Unit Recruiting (SUR). Under SUR, stations are identified as recruiting centers. During this transformation, Jacksonville Battalion relinquished Charleston and Warner Robins, restructured its remaining boundaries, added Daytona Company, and returned to central Florida with Daytona Beach and DeLand recruiting centers. The battalion now consists of Jacksonville, Daytona, Gainesville, Savannah and Valdosta companies managing 16 recruiting centers. It covers 45, 079 square miles, 609 zip codes, and 87 counties, and is in the jurisdiction of 377 public schools.